DAY 3 | Connecting Public Relations Theory and Research to Practice IPRRC
Researchers and practitioners will be discussing the last 24 papers to be presented at the 20th International Public Relations Research Conference (IPRRC), today, in Orlando. During the afternoon, an award recognition ceremony will celebrate the work behind twelve papers presented during the conference.
The following research discussion paper abstracts will be presented today. Find the links to previous abstracts: presented March 10th and March 9th. You can follow the Conference on Twitter via hashtag #IPRRC, and on Facebook.
Research Discussion Paper Abstracts, Saturday, March 11th
“Mirror Mirror on the Wall, Tell Me the Past, Present and the Future of All...” The Moral Imperative of Relating: Elevating Public Relations from Emotional Labor to Emotional Work Among the Public Relations Professionals
Priyanka Khandelwal, West Texas A&M University, and Kevin Stoker, Texas Tech University With the help of the interviews, this study aims to establish that PR professionals engage in the act of emotional labor. In times of crises, the PR professionals have to wear the face of the organization and act in a way that is in compliance with the values of the organization and disregard their feelings and emotions therefore, engaging in emotional labor.
Ann D. Jabro Digital Literacy, Media Planning and Storytelling: An Interdependant Relationship
Digital Literacy, Media Planning and Storytelling: An Interdependent Relationship
Ann D. Jabro, Robert Morris University
Digital Literacy is “the ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information, requiring both cognitive and technical skills” (Visser, 2012, para. 2). A 400-level PR course required students to create i-Movies and a media plan for non-profit clients. The visual products and media plans were analyzed for digital literacy progress. Results are presented.
Public Relations is a ‘Snap’: How Brands are Strategically Using Snapchat to Cultivate Relationships, Engage with Publics, and Accomplish Organizational Objectives
Christopher Wilson and Pamela Brubaker, Brigham Young University
Communication professionals have become enamored with ephemeral social media like Snapchat; however, little academic research has addressed it. The aim of this study is to understand how brands are using ephemeral social channels while “looking back” to the existing literature on relationship management, social media engagement, and visual communication.
Diana Martinelli, Elina Erzikova Public Relations Leadership Development Cycle
Public Relations Leadership Development Cycle: A Cross-cultural Perspective
[Arthur W. Page Center Benchmarking Award]
Diana Martinelli, West Virginia University, and Elina Erzikova, Central Michigan University
Using 51 purposive in-depth interviews with PR practitioners and students across five countries, this exploratory study examined when public relations leadership dimensions appear/are learned and how they are manifested. Cross-cultural differences and commonalities are noted, as are implications for leadership development.
Craig Carroll The C-P-R Framework and the Intellectual Mapping of the Public Relations Body of Knowledge
The C-P-R Framework and the Intellectual Mapping of the Public Relations Body of Knowledge: A Methodology and Case Study with Policy Implications
Craig Carroll, New York University
This paper introduces the C-P-R Triangle, a methodological framework for unpacking any key concept with greater precision and clarity. The triangle consists of three mutually exclusive perspectives (claims, perceptions, and rules). A case study on organizational strategy is used to illustrate how the framework can be applied.
Coast Guard Public Affairs History: The Search for Symmetry
Matthew M. Kroll, San Diego State University
This exploratory study discovered the history of public affairs in the United States Coast Guard and identified the organizational changes in the program. The researcher used Grunig and Hunt’s (1984) four models of public relations to show how Coast Guard’s external communication practices evolved over time.
Tweeting about #Diseases and #PublicHealth: Communicating Global Health Issues Across Nations Jeanine Guidry, Shana Meganck, and Marcus Messner, Virginia Commonwealth University, Alessandro Lovari, University of Sassari, Italy, and Jay Adams, Virginia Commonwealth University Little is known about public health department Twitter use across different nations. A quantitative content analysis of 1200 tweets by 12 leading health departments showed that the topics often lack in broad coverage—cardiovascular disease is barely mentioned. However, these departments increasingly use behavioral theories, which seems to increase Twitter engagement.
Veterans’ Suicide and Ethical Response: Examination of the VA’s Twitter Feed
Nandini Bhalla, University of South Carolina This exploratory study uses content analysis to examine comments posted by the
U.S. Veterans Administration (VA) and its followers on its official Twitter page, concerning the issue of veteran’s suicide. This study examined the four models of public relations used by the VA and the valence of the public’s tweets.
Research discussions session
Differences between Corporate, Not-for-Profit, Government, and PR Firm Practitioners in Professional Competencies and Molar Work Activities Vincent Hazleton, Independent Scholar, and Emilie L. Tydings, Virginia Technical University
Using the data from an online survey, this research addresses two important questions related to variations in public relations behavior. 1) Do all practitioners engage in the same pattern of molar work activities? And 2) do all practitioners need to have the same knowledge and skills?
The Psychological Process Underlying the Situational Theory Of Publics: An Application to the Evaluation Of the Dove Campaign For Real Beauty Joon Soo Lim, Syracuse University This paper explores how and why social media have been utilized to expand Poland’s soft power capabilities. By drawing on a stored Facebook data and a set of interviews, our study explores discursive exchanges between citizens-users of social media and nation branders in order to unpack new dynamics of nation-building in the globalized world.
Ethics Training at Public Relations Agencies: Identifying Current Trends and Future Directions
Denise Sevick Bortree, Pennsylvania State University Ethical behavior among public relations professionals is critical for continuing to build
the reputation of the field. Interviews with 10 PR executives at top agencies explored how agencies are training their employees on ethical topics. Results suggests that few are providing consistent training, but best practices emerged from strong advocates.
Rebecca Swenson, Nathan Gilkerson, Michael Ziviani Evaluation and Measurement Programs in Organizational Communication Departments
Evaluation and Measurement Programs in Organizational Communication Departments
Rebecca Swenson, University of Minnesota, Nathan Gilkerson, Marquette University, Forrest Anderson, Forrest W. Anderson Consulting & George Washington University, Fraser Likely, Likely Communication Strategies & University of Ottawa, Canada, Tim Marklein, Big Valley Marketing, and Michael Ziviani, Precise Value, Australia
Our goal is to better understand how organizations overcome challenges to improving evaluation practices and identify drivers of effective measurement. Using insights from in-depth interviews, our research-in-progress focuses on planning processes, perceptions of communication value, utilization of metrics by leaders, and alignment of measurement processes with industry standards and models.
Understanding Online Engagement from the Stakeholder Point of View: How Goals, Motives, and Affordances Drive Online Stakeholder Engagement Lisa V. Chewning, Pennsylvania State University—Abington This study approaches the concept of online stakeholder engagement through a dual framework of Uses & Gratifications (U&G) and a dialogic theory of public relations. Results provide insight into the psychological factors, affordances, and dialogic elements that drive social media use for stakeholder interaction with organizational platforms.
Winning in the Court of Public Opinion: Exploring PR- Legal Collaboration during Organizational Crises Soojin Kim, Singapore Management University, Singapore and Arunima Krishna, Boston University
This study explores the process by which public relations consultants develop co-narratives with legal counsel when formulating crisis communication strategies. Specifically, using 12 semi-structured interviews, this study investigates how public relations consultants reach the middle ground with legal counsel to achieve both legal and communication objectives.
Employee Prosocial Engagement in CSR through Empowerment in Decision-Making: A Qualitative Study Baobao Song, University of Florida, Weiting Tao, University of Miami, Sarab Kochhar, APCO Worldwide & Institute for Public Relations, and Mary Ann Ferguson, University of Florida This in-progress qualitative study explores an involvement-based internal CSR communication strategy that requires companies to engage their employees in systematic dialogue to co-constructing CSR decisions. The in-depth interviews are to reveal the perceived effectiveness of this strategy in creating engaging prosocial experiences for employees and in cultivating organization-employee relationships.
Silent & Unprepared: Millennial Practitioners yet to Embrace Role as Ethical Conscience
[Brigham Young University Top Ethics Paper Award]
Marlene S. Neill, Baylor University, and Nancy Weaver, The Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas Millennial practitioners do not feel prepared to offer ethics counsel and do not expect to face ethical dilemmas at work. Through survey research, significant differences were found regarding perceptions of readiness to offer ethics counsel based on availability of mentors and ethics training in college or at work.
Research discussions session
Kap Takes a Knee: A Media Framing Analysis of Colin Kaepernick’s Anthem Protest
Danielle Sarver Coombs, Cheryl Ann Lambert, David Cassilo, and Zachary Humphries, Kent State University
Media frame analysis of Colin Kaepernick’s anthem protest revealed Virality, Power and Influence, Individual Action, and Deflection and Distraction. This study has substantial implications for corporate public relations professionals because media frames inform reputation. Anthem protest coverage could lead to a strategic shift
in the NFL’s response approach.
Negativity and Information Sharing on Twitter
Zongchao Cathy Li, San José State University, Yi Grace Ji, University of Miami, and Guangliang Chen, San José State University
This study investigates negative sentiment in tweets and how it relates to online information sharing behaviors. Tweets data for the 2016 presidential election were retrieved through Twitter API and analyzed by sentiment analysis programs, followed by regression analysis. Several sentiment analysis programs were introduced and compared.
What is Beautiful is Good? Reputation Management Using PR Practitioner’s Physical Attractiveness and Self-Presentation Information Hyunmin Lee, Drexel University, and Seoyeon Hong, Webster University This experiment tested the impact of spokesperson attractiveness and practitioner self-presentation information in using advocate vs. accommodating responses for reputation management. Findings suggest that people evaluate organizations with attractive spokespeople higher for socially responsible reputation, however, its influence is contingent upon the crisis response and self-presentation availability.
Show Me the Ethics! How UPS Demonstrates Corporate Social Responsibility on Facebook to Build Relationships: A Case Study Joon K. Kim, Shannon A. Bowen, and Won-ki Moon, University of South Carolina
A content analysis of 169 Facebook posts by United Parcel Service that showcase corporate social responsibility (CSR), found that employing two-way symmetry and disclosing an explicit ethical message together in CSR posts have a significant positive association with Facebook users’ engagement (comments, shares, and emoji functions).
Less is More? Exploring Conspicuousness of Disclosure in Social Media Endorsement
Young Eun Park, Taeyoung Kim, and Cheonsoo Kim, Indiana University Is less conspicuous (vs. conspicuous) disclosure of sponsorship good for the brand?
The study explores the effects of conspicuousness of the disclosure in blogger endorsement. The study hypothesized that the interaction effects of conspicuousness and levels of influence on attitude toward the brand and cause, and purchase intention.
Tiffany Derville Gallicano From Cluster Tweets to Retweets: A Big Data, Rhetorical Exploration of Digital Social Advocacy in the Context of the
Charlotte Protests on Twitter
From Cluster Tweets to Retweets: A Big Data, Rhetorical Exploration of Digital Social Advocacy in the Context of the Charlotte Protests on Twitter [Boston University Award for the Top Paper about Public Relations and the Social and Emerging Media]
Tiffany Derville Gallicano, Ryan Wesslen, and Jean-Claude Thill, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
This big data study involved an analysis of 1.3 million tweets posted to the hashtags that were used during the Charlotte protests. We used a rhetorical lens for a deep examination of the tweets from three organizations that stood out in the sea of data. We also examined hashtag naming.
Sungsu Kim Applying the Public’s Perception of Temporal Distance into Crisis Communication: An Extended Concept of Threat
Applying the Public’s Perception of Temporal Distance into Crisis Communication: An Extended Concept of Threat Sungsu Kim, University of Georgia This paper reviews a three-tier dimensionality of threat in threat appraisal model and construal level theory. As an approach to conceptualize threat from the audience perspective, it proposes to build an extended concept of threat by applying perceived temporal distance. Future research recommendations and implications are also discussed.
Rebecca Cohen Businesses Under Close Watch: Examining the Factors That Affect Reputation Repair
Businesses Under Close Watch: Examining the Factors That Affect Reputation Repair
[Koichi Yamamura International Strategic Communication Award]
Rebecca Cohen, Jesson & Co, Canada Through in-depth interviews, content analysis, and survey, results of this study
suggest that reputation management is a top priority amongst Canadian organizations. Majority of survey participants and interviewees use multiple tools to monitor and measure reputation. Interview results demonstrated that communications teams had representation at the executive level.
An “Organic Theory of Public Relations: Its Genesis, Development, Present State, and Heuristic Potential
Marina Vujnovic, Monmouth University, and Dean Kruckeberg, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
This paper advocates and examines the potential of an “organic theory” of public relations, which literature has existed for over a decade. This “organic theory” provides a sustainable worldview and a grounded moral philosophy to address the inadequacies of present-day public relations theory-building.